Intraoperative Near-infrared Imaging Can Identify Canine Mammary Tumors, a Spontaneously Occurring, Large Animal Model of Human Breast Cancer

ABSTRACT Introduction Current methods of intraoperative margin assessment in breast conserving surgery are impractical, unreliable, or time consuming. We hypothesized that intraoperative near-infrared (NIR) imaging with an FDA-approved NIR optical contrast agent could identify canine mammary tumors, a spontaneous large animal model of human breast cancer, during surgery. Methods Dogs with mammary tumors underwent a…