Technical standardization of ICG near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for duplex kidney in pediatric patients

Abstract Background This study aimed to standardize the operative technique of indocyanine green (ICG) near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) and compare it with the standard technique. Methods In the last 4 years, we performed 22 LPN (14 right-sided, 8 left-sided) in children with non-functioning moiety of duplex kidney. Patients included 12 girls and…