Intraoperative incisionless fluorescent cholangiography (IOIFC) has been described to identify extrahepatic biliary anatomy. Potential advantages of the routine use of intraoperative incisionless fluorescent cholangiography were evaluated in a consecutive series of cases.


A total of 45 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy between January and July 2013 were consented and included in this study. We analyzed a prospectively collected database for feasibility, cost, time, usefulness, teaching tool, safety, learning curve, X-ray exposure, complexity, and real-time surgery of IOIFC. A single dose of 0.05 mg/kg of Indocyanine green was administered prior to surgery. During the procedure, a laparoscopic fluorescence system was used.


IOIFC could be performed in all 45 patients, whereas intraoperative cholangiography could be performed in 42 (93 %). Individual median cost of performing IOFC was cheaper than IOC (13.97 ± 4.3 vs 778.43 ± 0.4 USD) per patient, p = 0.0001). IOFC was faster than IOC (0.71 ± 0.26 vs 7.15 ± 3.76 minutes, p < 0.0001). The cystic duct was identified by IOFC in 44 out of 45 patients (97.77 %).


IOIFC appears to be a feasible, low-cost, expeditious, useful, and effective imaging modality when performing LC. It is safe, easy to perform and interpret, and does not require a learning curve or X-ray. It can be used for real time surgery to delineate the extrahepatic biliary structures.