This study aimed to standardize the operative technique of indocyanine green (ICG) near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) and compare it with the standard technique.


In the last 4 years, we performed 22 LPN (14 right-sided, 8 left-sided) in children with non-functioning moiety of duplex kidney. Patients included 12 girls and 10 boys with a median age of 3.9 years (range 1–10). Patients were grouped according to the use of ICG-NIRF: G1 included 12 patients operated using ICG-NIRF and G2 included 10 patients receiving the standard technique. We standardized the technique of injection of ICG in three different steps.


The median operative time was significantly lower in G1 [87 min (range 68–110)] compared with G2 [140 min (range 70–220)] (p = 0.001). One intra-operative complication occurred in G2. At post-operative ultrasound (US), the residual moiety was normal in all patients. An asymptomatic renal cyst related to the site of surgery was visualized at US in 8/22 (36%), with a significantly higher incidence in G2 (6/10, 60%) compared with G1 (2/12, 16.6%) (p = 0.001). Renogram demonstrated no loss of function of residual moiety. No allergic reactions to ICG occurred.


ICG-NIRF LPN is technically easier, quicker, and safer compared with the standard technique. The main advantages of using ICG-NIRF during LPN are the clear identification of normal ureter, vasculature of non-functioning pole, and demarcation line between the avascular and the perfused pole. The main limitation of ICG technology remains the need for specific laparoscopic equipment that is not always available.

Esposito, C., Autorino, G., Coppola, V. et al. Technical standardization of ICG near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for duplex kidney in pediatric patients. World J Urol 39, 4167–4173 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03759-6

View full publications