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Abstract Background Anastomotic leakage in esophagectomy is a serious complication, and assessing blood perfusion in the conduit can help minimize this risk. Indocyanine green is the most widely used method to assess tissue blood flow; however, this technique has disadvantages. Evaluating tissue oxygen saturation in the gastric conduit during thoracic esophagectomy compared with indocyanine green blood perfusion assessment addresses these disadvantages and can be performed easily and repeatedly. Methods This was a prospective study of patients with esophageal cancer who underwent thoracic...

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Abstract Background. Most of the available evidence on the use of indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence in clinical practice consists of articles published by surgeons of the Asian-Pacific area. We performed a prospective cohort study to assess the patterns of ICG fluorescence in Western hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) counterparts. Methods. From April 2019 to January 2022, a total of 31 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) for superficial HCC were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent laparoscopic staging with...

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In February 2019 in Frankfurt, Germany, the Advisory Board of the International Society of Fluorescence-Guided Surgery (ISFGS) unanimously voted to conduct a series of Delphi surveys across multiple surgical fields as a first step towards drafting consensus guidelines. The first of these surveys, on its general use, has already been published in Annals of Surgery in April 2022. This special edition of Surgery: Fluorescent Guided Surgery reports the methodology and results of six surveys, all conducted in 2020-2021, evaluating current beliefs and practices...

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Abstract Background: Indocyanine green fluorescence (ICG) is one of the first fluorophore that found a clinical application in medicine. In the liver, ICG fluorescence is due to the preserved uptake but impaired washout of the dye from hepatocellular cells into the bile ducts. Therefore, some hepatobiliary surgeons proposed the technique of intravenous ICG injection before surgery for the detection of superficial hepatocarcinomas (HCCs) and colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs). Little evidence exists regarding the use of ICG to identify other hepatic tumors, such as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma...

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Abstract Background Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is a highly lethal malignancy characterized by lymph node metastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of indocyanine green fluorescence for visualization of lymphatic drainage and to assess its clinical application during laparoscopic lymph node dissection for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Methods All patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma who underwent laparoscopic left hepatectomy and lymph node dissection between October 2018 and January 2021 were reviewed. The patients were assigned to the indocyanine green group...

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Abstract Objectives Intraoperative fluorescence imaging is currently used in a variety of surgical fields for four main purposes: assessing tissue perfusion; identifying/localizing cancer; mapping lymphatic systems; and visualizing anatomy. To establish evidence-based guidance for research and practice, understanding the state of research on fluorescence imaging in different surgical fields is needed. We evaluated the evidence on fluorescence imaging for perfusion assessments using the Idea, Development,Exploration, Assessment, Long Term Study (IDEAL) framework, which was designed...

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Abstract Background Nerve visualization and the identification of other neural tissues during surgery is crucial for numerous reasons, including the prevention of iatrogenic nerve and neural structure injury and facilitation of nerve repair. However, current methods of intra-operative nerve detection are generally expensive, unproven, and/or technically challenging. Recently, we have documented, in both in vivo animal models and ex vivo human tissue, that nerves autofluorescence when viewed in near-ultraviolet light (NUV). In this paper, we describe our use of nerve autofluorescence...

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